The quality of education is a subject that always arises when discussing roadmaps by which developing nations can improve living standards and economic wellbeing. It became an even more popular topic when, in 2015, all United Nation Member States adopted it as one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, number 4, as a means – among others – by which poverty could be alleviated by 2030. It is also clear that fostering quality requires significantly more that simply expanding access to education: that is, increasing enrolments and decreasing dropouts. Any transformative notion of educational quality must include not only access but providing students with the 21st-century knowledge and competences required to maximize their chances of interpersonal, professional, and intellectual success. Thus, in developing nations, efforts must move beyond those initiatives whose primary focus is simply the expansion of capacity: building schools and hiring teachers. These are a necessary first step in nations where population sizes are increasing apace, but should always be subordinate to a focus on providing high quality educational resources and preparing teachers to use them effectively.